What are Other Names for Human Pheromones?

Published: 24th July 2008
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What are Other Names for Human Pheromones?

A rose by any other name smells just as sweet. But names help distinguish effective human pheromone fragrances and products from less effective ones.

Research into human pheromones is relatively new, having existed only since the late 1980s. So the number of pheromones that have been identified is surprisingly few.

Most studies focus on substances that begin with the prefix 'andro-.' This is a reference to the fact that pheromones in both men and women come from the male sex hormones, known as androgens. In men, androgens create the typically male sexual characteristics: body hair, deepened voice, and mature genitals. Women also produce androgens, although in much smaller amounts, and they're responsible for maintaining sexual desire and energy. Women also produce a specific type of vaginal pheromone called a copulin that isn't derived from androgens, but the general use of the word 'pheromone' refers to androgenic compounds.

The apocrine glands naturally secrete androgens. The pheromones that have been studied the most are collectively known as the 16-androstenes or 16-androstene steroids. They include androstadienone and androstadienol. (The equivalent female pheromone to androstadienol is estratetraenol.) These are odorless apocrine secretions. Upon contact with the bacteria on the skin surface, these fragrance-free pheromones are instantly converted to the aromatic compounds androstenone and androstenol.

Studies show that the pheromones androstadienone and androstenol are associated with positive changes in women's moods and reported level of sexual arousal and the way they respond to photographs of both men and women. Androstadienone is also associated with changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing that are consistent with sexual arousal. Androstadienone is sometimes abbreviated to AND.

Pheromones are also sometimes called primers, signals, triggers, or releasers. These obviously aren't chemical names, but they refer to the perceived power of pheromones to create behavior changes in other people.

Primers create long-lasting changes in hormone levels. Excellent evidence exists that male pheromones create shifts in female hormone levels. For instance, women with irregular menstrual cycles who smelled samples of male apocrine secretions daily for four months experienced increasing regularity. The cycle length for the majority of women in the study was an average of 29 days.

There is also good evidence that pheromones act as signals, increasing the effectiveness of mate selection. For instance, women are more attracted to the pheromone scents of men whose immune systems are different from their own.

What's less clear is that pheromones function as triggers or releasers, prompting behavior changes in women. One study showed that women who were exposed to the scent of androstenol overnight had an increased number of, and more intense, social interactions with men the following morning, but no follow-up studies confirmed this effect.

When considering the purchase of pheromones fragrances or other products, it's essential to understand how the word 'pheromone' is being used. Does it refer to androstenol, which women find appealing, or androstenone, which they find unpleasant? Products claiming to contain triggers or releasers should be carefully investigated. Since the number of identified human pheromones is quite small, products that purport to contain a large number of pheromones merit investigation.

The knowledge of pheromone nomenclature can go a long way to helping you sort through misconceptions about and misleading advertisements for pheromones.


Jamie Reese, scientific researcher specializing in the fascinating area of human pheromones has created the most effective formula that positively affects a women's

desires. Get a free report on this scientific breakthrough at www.emamorx.com/ART

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